We at Smart Drugs for Thought, will continue further extensive research and studies on this nootropic substance to further assist you all in any questions or concerns. Recently, we stumbled upon several amazingly profound medical documents based on the nootropic we call piracetam. The results will be posted on this page for references. This page is dedicated to clinical research documents and studies on piracetam. Please do not hesitate to do further research on Piracetam online.
There is a rather interesting article on nootropics. This article discusses the aging of the brain and how it may help with cognitive issues. Another nootropic named Hydergine is discussed in this medical document. We hope this helps anyone who is interested in finding a possible solution to the aging of the human brain.
Here is a up to date research list on the benefits of the Nootropic (Piracetam).
In case you want to know more about this smart drug (Nootropic) these researches can be found via google.
Here is some recent medical documentation regarding the trials and test with racetams in the last decade -Download PDF By Clicking Here
Piracetam is a water-soluble Pyrrolidone Derivative Nootropic Smart Drug. It is chemically similar to Pyroglutamate.
Health Benefits of Piracetam
Aging & Life Extension
Piracetam possesses Life Extension potential
-Piracetam prolongs the life of mice and rats under conditions of Hypoxia.
-Piracetam counteracts the Hypoxia that occurs as a result of Atherosclerosis.
-Piracetam improves Blood Circulation to the Brain (and may thereby alleviate Cerebral Insufficiency). Parnetti, L., et al. Haemorrheological pattern in initial mental deterioration; Results of a long term study using piracetam and pentoxifylline. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 4:141-155, 1985.
-Piracetam counteracts Raynaud’s Disease (by alleviating the underlying Hypoxia that is believed to be responsible for Raynaud’s Disease).
-Piracetam enhances the after-treatment of Strokes (due to its enhancement of Oxygen utilization in the Brain). Deberdt, W. Interaction between psychological and pharmacological treatment in cognitive impairment. Life Sciences. 55:2057-2066, 1994.
-Piracetam is used to treat Alcoholism (due to its ability to enhance Oxygen utilization in the Brain):
- Piracetam counteracts the inefficient utilization of Oxygen associated with Alcohol consumption and this nootropic also impedes damage to the Neurons of the Hippocampus following Alcohol (ethanol) consumption and impedes the exacerbated destruction of hippocampal Neurons during the period immediately following Alcohol withdrawal after prolonged Alcohol consumption. BrandIao, F., et al. Piracetam impedes hippocampal neuronal loss during withdrawal after chronic alcohol intake. Alcohol. 12(3):279-288, 1995. and BrandIao, F., et al. Piracetam promotes mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in rats withdrawn from alcohol. Alcohol. 13(3):239-249, 1996.
-Piracetam counteracts the Hypoxia that occurs as a result of Tobacco smoking.
-Piracetam improves Athletic Performance at high altitudes (due to this nootropic’s ability to prevent Hypoxia).
-Piracetam reduces Fatigue. Kindrin, et al. The systems approach in assessing the pharmacological correctiion of long-term fatigue. Noen Med ZH. 80:46-51, 1993.
-Piracetam prevents and accelerates the Brain’s recovery from Hypoxia. Schaffler, K., et al. Antihypoxidotic effects of Piracetam using psychophysiological measures in healthy volunteers. Arzneim Forsch Drug Res. 38:288-291, 1988.
-Piracetam improves Alertness in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons.
-Piracetam improves the condition of Alzheimer’s Disease patients and Dementia patients : Dean, W. & Morgenthaler, J. Smart Drugs & Nutrients. B & J Publications, Santa Cruz, California, USA. 1990:45.
- Piracetam is useful as a long-term treatment for clotting, coagulation, and vasospastic disorders such as Raynaud’s phenomenon and deep-vein thrombosis. Winnicka, K; Tomasiak, M; Bielawska, A (2005). “Piracetam–an old drug with novel properties?”. Acta poloniae pharmaceutica 62 (5): 405–9. AND Moriau, M; Crasborn, L; Lavenne-Pardonge, E; Von Frenckell, R; Col-Debeys, C (1993). “Platelet anti-aggregant and rheological properties of piracetam. A pharmacodynamic study in normal subjects”. Arzneimittel-Forschung 43 (2): 110–8.
-It was also effective in the treatment of cognitive disorders of cerebrovascular and traumatic origins; however, its overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. Malykh AG, Sadaie MR (February 2010). “Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders”. Drugs 70 (3): 287–312.
-Piracetam increases Alertness (by an average of 50%) in Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia patients.
-This nootropic alleviates Depression (by an average of 32%) in Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia patients.
-The supplement improves Memory (by an average of 45%) in Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia patients.
-Piracetam alleviates the Paranoia that often occurs during the progression of Alzheimer\s Disease. Dean, W. & Morgenthaler, J. Smart Drugs & Nutrients. B & J Publications, Santa Cruz, California, USA. 1990:45
-Piracetam alleviates Sleep Disorders in Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia patients.
-Piracetam alleviates Anxiety. Petkov, V. D., et al. A study of nootropic drugs for anti-anxiety action. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 13(4):25-30, 1987.
-Piracetam (1,200 – 2,400 mg per day) alleviates the Learning difficulties associated with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).
-Piracetam improves Attention Span in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons.
-This supplement may regenerate the Central Nervous System.
-Piracetam increases the number of Cholinergic Receptors (i.e. Receptors for Acetylcholine) in the brain by up to 40%:
-Piracetam stimulates Muscarinic Receptors and increases the sensitivity of Muscarinic Receptors (i.e. it functions as a Muscarinic Receptor Agonist). Pilch, H. Piracetam elevates muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in the frontal cortex of the aged. Psychopharmacology. 94:74-78, 1988.
-Piracetam facilitates the Interhemispheric Flow of Information between the two hemispheres of the Brain (by stimulating the production of Adenosine Triphosphate in the Cerebral Cortex of the Brain).
-Piracetam enhances Creativity (by improving the Interhemispheric flow of Information within the Corpus Callosum of the Brain). Dimond, S. J. Drugs to improve learning in man in the neuropsychology of learning disorders. Knight, R., Bakker, D. (editors). University Park, Baltimore, USA, 1976, pages 367-379.
-Piracetam improves Hearing in persons afflicted with (sudden) Deafness (hearing loss) – in some cases it improves hearing by up to 15 dB.
-Piracetam has been tested and found to be extremely beneficial in the treatment of Down’s Syndrome (an unpublished clinical trial attests to its ability to cause improvement in motor development, mental development, speech, emotional development, scholastic achievement and EEG in Down’s Syndrome patients). Fowkes, S. W. The case for piracetam in Down’s syndrome. Smart Drug News. 5(9):1-8, 1997.
-Piracetam improves most aspects of Mental Function (including speed and accuracy of reading, Short-Term Memory and Verbal Memory) in Dyslexia patients (by stimulating the production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in the Corpus Callosum of the Brain and by improving the Interhemispheric flow of Information between the two hemispheres of the Brain). Wilsher, C. R., et al. Piracetam and dyslexia: Effects on reading tests. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 7(4):230-237, 1987. and Chase, C. H., et al. A new chemotherapeutic investigation: Piracetam effects on dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia. 34:29-48, 1984.
-Piracetam improves most aspects of mental function in Epilepsy patients without interfering with anti-epileptic pharmaceutical drugs: Chaudhry, H. R., et al. Clinical use of piracetam in epileptic patients. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 52(3):355-360, 1992.
-Piracetam enhances the ability of some Anti-Epileptic Pharmaceutical Drugs (e.g. Carbamazepine) to protect against Seizures in Epilepsy patients.
-Piracetam enhances the activities of the Hippocampus associated with Learning and this nootropic also impedes damage to the Neurons of the Hippocampus following Alcohol (ethanol) consumption and impedes the exacerbated destruction of hippocampal Neurons during the period immediately following Alcohol withdrawal after prolonged Alcohol consumption. BrandIao, F., et al. Piracetam impedes hippocampal neuronal loss during withdrawal after chronic alcohol intake. Alcohol. 12(3):279-288, 1995.
-Piracetam enhances the utilization of Oxygen within the Brain and enhances the Brain’s recovery from Hypoxia (oxygen starvation).
-This smart drug may increase some aspects of human Intelligence. Dimond, S. J., et al. Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of drugs. Psychopharmacol. 49:307-309, 1976.
-Piracetam improves Learning ability in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons (by influencing both the Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex of the Brain). Dimond, S. J. Drugs to improve learning in man in the neuropsychology of learning disorders. Knight, R., Bakker, D. (editors). University Park, Baltimore, USA, 1976, pages 367-379.
-This racetam may improve Memory in normal, healthy humans and age-impaired persons (by increasing the synthesis of the Proteins responsible for Memory by Polyribosomes and by increasing the production of Polyribosomes themselves): Dimond, S. J., et al. Increase in the power of human memory in normal man with the use of drugs. Psychopharmacology. 49:307-309, 1976.
-Piracetam protects against Memory loss from physical injury and chemical poisoning.
-Piracetam improves Short Term Memory (including Spatial Memory Christoffersen, G. R. Effects of piracetam on the performance of rats in a delayed match-to-position task. Prog Nueropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 22(1):211-228, 1998., an aspect of Short Term Memory that involves remembering one’s position in space).
-This nootropic stimulates and increases the sensitivity of Muscarinic Receptors (i.e. it functions as a Muscarinic Receptor Agonist); Piracetam also increases the number of Muscarinic Receptors in the Frontal Lobe of the Brain (indicating that Piracetam may stimulate the growth of new Muscarinic Receptors in the Frontal Lobe).
-Piracetam is currently recognized as the treatment of choice for Myoclonus. Ikeda, A., et al. Clinical trial of piracetam in patients with myoclonus: nationwide multiinstitution study in Japan. The myoclonus/piracetam study group. Movement Disorders. 11(6):691-700, 1996.
-Piracetam rejuvenates aged and damaged Neurons in the Brain.
-This nootropic may alleviate the Paranoia that often occurs during the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease. Itil, T., et al. Pramiracetam, a new nootropic, a controlled quantitative pharmaco-EEG study. Psychopharm Bull. 19:708-716, 1983.
-Piracetam (4,800 mg per day) is an effective adjuvant treatment (combined with Speech Therapy) for the treatment of Speech Impairment (aphasia). Huber, W. Piracetam as an adjuvant therapy to language speech for aphasia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 78(3):245-250, 1997.
-Piracetam increases the body’s tolerance to Stress. Kresiun, et al. Effect of psychotropic drugs on the structure and function of the adrenal glands. Probl Endocrinol. 38:41-44, 1992.
-Piracetam alleviates (acute) Tinnitus.Fortschr Med. 1995 June 30;113(18):288-90.
-Piracetam (2,400 – 4,800 mg per day) counteracts Vertigo (by alleviating the underlying Hypoxia that is believed to be responsible for Vertigo).
-Piracetam in the treatment of post-concussional syndrome. Eur Neurol. 1978;17(1):50-5.
-Piracetam is used by parents as a treatment for childhood autism, a practice partially supported by clinical research. Akhondzadeh, S., et al. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of piracetam added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, Vol 39(3), Sep, 2008. pp. 237-245.
Piracetam Enhances the Function of these Substances
-Piracetam improves the metabolism of Glucose within the Brain.
-Piracetam lowers the production of Acetylcholinesterase to levels regarded as normal for younger subjects.
-Piracetam inhibits Thromboxane-A Synthetase (this inhibition is considered beneficial in that by inhibiting Thromboxane-A Synthetase, the production of Thromboxane A2 is decreased (Thromboxane A2 is implicated in abnormal Blood Clotting).
C)Krebs Cycle Chemicals
-Piracetam increases the Brain’s turnover of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) within the Cerebral Cortex which is associated with increased Energy production within the Brain: Schaffler, K., et al. Antihypoxidotic effects of Piracetam using psychophysiological measures in healthy volunteers. Arzneim Forsch Drug Res. 38:288-291, 1988.
-Piracetam increases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. Schaffler, K., et al. Antihypoxidotic effects of Piracetam using psychophysiological measures in healthy volunteers. Arzneim Forsch Drug Res. 38:288-291, 1988.
-Piracetam increases the levels of Phospholipids in the Brain.
Piracetam Counteracts the Toxic Effects of these Substances
-Piracetam counteracts the Memory-impairment caused by Diazepam (Valium). Pan, J. C., et al. [Antagonism of piracetam on the amnestic effect of diazepam in mice]. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 31(2):91-94, 1996.
-Piracetam helps to reverse the Short Term Memory loss associated with Marijuana usage.
These Substances are Synergistic with Piracetam and may Reduce the Effective dosage required for Piracetam
Piracetam requires the presence of Steroid Hormones to be effective and people with low levels of Steroid Hormones or their precursors cannot derive the therapeutic benefits offered by Pyrrolidone Derivatives:
- Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
Conversely, excessive levels of Steroid Hormones impairs the effectiveness of Piracetam.
-Piracetam potentiates the ability of Pentoxifylliine to improve Blood Circulation to the Brain. Parnetti, L., et al. Haemorrheological pattern in initial mental deterioration; Results of a long term study using piracetam and pentoxifylline. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 4:141-155, 1985.
-Centrophenoxine is synergistic with Piracetam.
-Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is synergistic with Piracetam.
-Hydergine and Piracetam potentiate one another by up to 500%. Berga, P., et al. Synergistic interactions between piracetam and [hydergine] in some animal models of cerebral hypoxia and ischaemia. Arzneim Forsch. 36:1314-1320, 1986.
-Choline is highly synergistic with Piracetam – Choline significantly enhances the therapeutic benefits of Piracetam. Bartus, R. T., et al. Profound effects of combining choline and piracetam on memory enhancement and cholinergic function in aging rats. Neurobiol. Aging. 2:105, 1981.
-Vitamin B5 is synergistic with Piracetam.
Minor Side-Effects of Piracetam
-Piracetam is non-toxic. No side-effects have been observed even at extremely high dosages. Piracetam produced none of the side-effects (stimulation or sedation) that usually occur in drugs that act on the Central Nervous System (CNS).
-Piracetam can potentiate the effects of Amphetamines.
Therapeutic Dosages (this includes the attack dosage as well)
-An initial kickstart dose of Piracetam of 4,000 – 8,000 mg is usually used for the first two days of Piracetam therapy. Many persons notice no effect from Piracetam unless they use this initial high kick start dosage.
-The maintenance dose of Piracetam is 2,400 – 4,800 mg per day (taken as three divided doses during the day).
These dosage recommendations should be reduced if Piracetam is being used at the same time as Hydergine since these two substances are very synergistic when taken togethe
The degree of improvement attained by using Piracetam varies from subtle to dramatic – the degree of original impairment appears to influence the subjective benefits derived from Piracetam (persons with the most severe impairment tend to obtain the most benefit).
Bioavailability-I’m not sure if this matters to most of the crowd.
-Piracetam is rapidly and almost totally (near 100%) absorbed when administered orally.
-Peak Blood Plasma levels of Piracetam occur within 1.5 hours of its oral administration.
-The Blood Plasma half-life of Piracetam is 5 hours.
-Piracetam effectively crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier.
-Piracetam does not metabolize within the body to any other substance.
-Almost all ingested Piracetam is excreted from the body via the Urine.
-Additional information about this nootropic.
References used for our “What is Piracetam?” page.
Grossman, L., Stewart, A., Gaikwad, S., Utterback, E., Wu, N., Dileo, J., Frank, K., Hart, P., Howard, H., & Kalueff, A. (2011). Effects of Piracetam on Behavior and Memory in Adult Zebrafish. Brain Research Bulletin, 58-63.
Scheuer, K., Rostock, A., Bartsch, R., & Müller, W. (1999). Piracetam Improves Cognitive Performance by Restoring Neurochemical Deficits of the Aged Rat Brain.Pharmacopsychiatry, 32(01), 10-16.
Shorvon, S., Fish, D., & Dodson, W. (2007). The Treatment of Epilepsy. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Stokes, M. (2004). Physical Management in Neurological Rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Mosby.
Winblad, B. (2005). Piracetam: A Review of Pharmacological Properties and Clinical Uses. CNS Drug Reviews, 11(02), 169-182.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.