Phenylpiracetam, What is it?
Phenylpiracetam: What is Phenylpiracetam?
Phenylpiracetam (4 fenilpiratsetam “Phenotropil”) is a drug belonging to the group of neuroprotective drugs. Presumably, nootropic, anxiolytic, antiastenicheskoe, anticonvulsant and neuromodulating action. The drug can have a pronounced stimulatory effect on motor responses and improve physical performance, therefore previously been used by athletes as doping, in connection with what is included in the WADA list of prohibited funds during sports.
Phenylpiracetam was developed at the Institute of Biomedical Problems as psychostimulant new generation capable of enhancing mental and physical performance of astronauts in different stages of varying duration space flight without compromising effect on the accuracy of operator activity at higher speeds, as well as making the right decisions in extreme conditions.
Phenylpiracetam belongs to the family of derivatives of piracetam (2-pyrrolidone) and a phenyl-substituted piracetam. Adding the phenyl group presumably causes the change in the pharmacokinetic properties of piracetam (e.g., can improve the penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier).
How does Phenylpiracetam work?
Phenylpiracetam molecule contains a single chiral center at the carbon atom of the quaternary pyrrolidone cycle used in the pharmaceutical practice, a racemic mixture of R- and S-enantiomers. According to a study conducted on animals, both enantiomers are comparable in severity of effects as an antidepressant and stimulant motor reactions, but nootropic (improves memory) effect is manifested only R-isomer of phenylpiracetam.
The mechanism of pharmacological action fonturatsetama not reliably known. There is evidence that it has direct affinity for nicotinic cholinergic receptors, and may also increase the concentration of NMDA-glutamate receptors (although not directly associated to them). After oral administration, rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, distributed in various organs and tissues, readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. The absolute bioavailability of the drug when administered to 100%. Maximum blood levels achieved after 1 hour. Phenylpiracetam not metabolized in the body and excreted unchanged. About 40% is excreted in the urine, 60% – in the bile and then. The half-life is 3-5 hours. Toxicity is relatively low. Declared by the manufacturer a wide range of indications for the use phenylpiracetam, but no significant results of clinical trials that would confirm the effectiveness of the drug, in scientific journals practically been published.
Phenylpiracetam Dosage and suggested usage
According to data obtained as a result of one of the studies, Phenylpiracetam can have a positive impact on the degree of recovery of patients after suffering a stroke. In a study of 200 patients for one year after a stroke received three courses of the drug at a dose of 400 mg / day (mean duration of one course – 30 days). According to the results of treatment the degree of restoration of disturbed neurological function and adaption in the observed patients was higher than in the control group.
Short term and long term effects
The stimulatory effect of any nootropic drug very rarely goes to the body without any consequences. Permanent artificial stimulation of receptors in the composition of chemical compounds such stimulant drugs may lead to depletion of a different nature – a nervous, emotional exhaustion. Perhaps something similar effect is observed during chronic administration of drugs, antidepressants, as well acting on receptors in the brain – not for nothing at the end of the course of treatment is required to reduce the dosage gradually to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Irritability, sleep disturbances and insomnia, fatigue, lethargy, inability to experience strong emotions or, on the contrary, mood swings, increased emotionality – just some of the potential consequences of long-term use of Phenotropil provided there is no need in this preparation.
Phenylpiracetam Side Effects
CNS: insomnia (while taking the drug after 15 hours). Some patients in the first 3 days of receipt – psychomotor agitation, flushing of the skin, a feeling of warmth, increased blood pressure.
Additional Information on Phenylpiracetam
Phenylpiracetam is widely believed to have first been created in Russia in the early 1990′s, but Soviet journals from 1983 held information regarding it under the name of “Carphedron”. Pharmacological studies have shown that Phenylpiracetam stimulates certain neuronal receptors in the Central Nervous System (CNS) that are involved in memory and thought processes, such as the acetylcholine transmitters, GABA receptors, and NDMA receptors. Phenylpiracetam has also shown to increase dopamine receptors (D1, D2, and D3) activity.
Phenylpiracetam is a water-soluble nootropic of the racetam chemical class purported to be 30 to 60 times more potent than Piracetam, and the strongest Racetam to date. Phenylpiracetam not only improves cognitive functions and thought processes, but has also shown usefulness in physical conditioning through helping increase stamina as well as improve one’s tolerance to cold. Phenylpiracetam has been found to have a high oral bioavailability compared to other Racetams, with a 3 to 5 hour half life in humans.
Phenylpiracetam was shown in a clinical study to have a wider and more effective range of benefits in comparison with Piracetam. Phenylpiracetam was shown to improve memory functions, problem solving skills, and attention switching. Drugs. 2010 Feb 12;70(3):287-312. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.
Another study showed Phenylpiracetam had a wide range of benefits including increased locomotion skills, antidepressant benefits, and memory enhancement. This series of tests was recently done on rats after only one administration of the nootropic Phenylpiracetam. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011 Nov;109(5):407-12. Investigation into stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenotropil.
In one study done on rats that had LPS-induced immune stress Phenylpiracetam when used showed an increase in horizontal locomotion, prevention of apprehension and fear response. Showing that Phenylpiracetam promotes psychoimmunomodularory effects. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 May;151(1):51-4. Psychoimmunomodulatory effect of phenotropil in animals with immune stress.
The recommended Phenylpiracetam dosage is usually 200 mg per day, taken in two 100 mg doses, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. It is sold in both tablet and powder form, generally of 100 mg each.
Does Phenylpiracetam Work?
Phenylpiracetam is a Nootropic that is promoted as a natural method of improving cognitive functions, energy, focus, and locomotive abilities. There has been several clinical studies that have shown Phenylpiracetam to have a stronger effect than Piracetam, and a wider range of benefits. Some of the reported benefits include preventing some fear anxiety and depression, increased locomotor functionality, as well as improved immunoreactivity.
There are still many variables that are necessary to be looked at with improving cognitive abilities. As a result, it is very hard to determine just how effective Phenylpiracetam would be for a specific person. It all comes down to their own needs and current cognitive ability as well as lifestyle choices.